Habermas Juergen

<history of philosophy, biography> german philosopher (1929-). As a prominent member of the Frankfurt school, Habermas engages in critical study of the historical origins of human knowledge in many disciplines. His Theorie und Praxis: Sozial-Philosophische Studien (Theory and Practice) (1963) and Legitimationsprobleme im Spaetkapitalismus (Legitimation Crisis) (1973) examine the social conditions under which the uninhibited dialogue of an "ethics of discourse" is possible in the public literary sphere, serving the basic human needs to gain control over the natural world, to explore the character of interpersonal relationships, and to escape the domination of social power-structures. In Erkentniss und Interesse (Knowledge and Human Interests) (1968) Habermas again emphasized the implications of social context for the development of epistemology. Habermas is also the author of Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns (The Theory of Communicative Action) (1981) and Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne (Philosophical Discourse on Modernity) (1985), where he criticizes the more radical views of Foucault and Lyotard. Recommended Reading: Jurgen Habermas, Postmetaphysical Thinking: Philosophical Essays, tr. by William Mark Hohengarten (MIT, 1994); Jurgen Habermas, Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action, tr. by Shierry Weber Nicholsen and Christian Lenhardt (MIT, 1992); Habermas: A Critical Reader, ed. by Peter Dews (Blackwell, 1999); Perspectives on Habermas, ed. by Lewis Edwin Hahn (Open Court, 2000); The Cambridge Companion to Habermas, ed. by Stephen K. White (Cambridge, 1995); John B. Thompson, Critical Hermeneutics: A Study in the Thought of Paul Ricoeur and Jurgen Habermas (Cambridge, 1984); Habermas and the Unfinished Project of Modernity: Critical Essays on the Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, ed. by Maurizio P. D'Entreves and Seyla Benhabib (MIT, 1997); and Jane Braaten, Habermas's Critical Theory of Society (SUNY, 1991).

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hacker

<person, jargon> (Originally, someone who makes furniture with an axe) 1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary.

2. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming.

3. A person capable of appreciating hack value.

4. A person who is good at programming quickly.

5. An expert at a particular program, or one who frequently does work using it or on it; as in "a Unix hacker". (Definitions 1 through 5 are correlated, and people who fit them congregate.)

6. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example.

7. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations.

8. (Deprecated) A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence "password hacker", "network hacker". The correct term is cracker.

The term "hacker" also tends to connote membership in the global community defined by the net (see The Network and Internet address). It also implies that the person described is seen to subscribe to some version of the hacker ethic.

It is better to be described as a hacker by others than to describe oneself that way. Hackers consider themselves something of an elite (a meritocracy based on ability), though one to which new members are gladly welcome. Thus while it is gratifying to be called a hacker, false claimants to the title are quickly labelled as "bogus" or a "wannabee".

9. (University of Maryland, rare) A programmer who does not understand proper programming techniques and principles and doesn't have a Computer Science degree. Someone who just bangs on the keyboard until something happens. For example, "This program is nothing but spaghetti code. It must have been written by a hacker".

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hacker ethic

<ethics> 1. The belief that information-sharing is a powerful positive good, and that it is an ethical duty of hackers to share their expertise by writing free software and facilitating access to information and to computing resources wherever possible.

2. The belief that system-cracking for fun and exploration is ethically OK as long as the cracker commits no theft, vandalism, or breach of confidentiality.

Both of these normative ethical principles are widely, but by no means universally, accepted among hackers. Most hackers subscribe to the hacker ethic in sense 1, and many act on it by writing and giving away free software. A few go further and assert that *all* information should be free and *any* proprietary control of it is bad; this is the philosophy behind the GNU project.

Sense 2 is more controversial: some people consider the act of cracking itself to be unethical, like breaking and entering. But the belief that "ethical" cracking excludes destruction at least moderates the behaviour of people who see themselves as "benign" crackers (see also samurai). On this view, it may be one of the highest forms of hackerly courtesy to (a) break into a system, and then (b) explain to the sysop, preferably by e-mail from a superuser account, exactly how it was done and how the hole can be plugged - acting as an unpaid (and unsolicited) tiger team.

The most reliable manifestation of either version of the hacker ethic is that almost all hackers are actively willing to share technical tricks, software, and (where possible) computing resources with other hackers. Huge cooperative networks such as Usenet, FidoNet and Internet (see Internet address) can function without central control because of this trait; they both rely on and reinforce a sense of community that may be hackerdom's most valuable intangible asset.

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haecceity

<history of philosophy, ontology, metaphysics> thisness; the property that uniquely distinguishes each individual thing from others of its kind. Introduced by Duns Scotus as a name for the individuating essence of any particular, the term has been used more recently in connection with the view that rigidly designated individuals can exist in each of many possible worlds. Recommended Reading: John Duns Scotus, Philosophical Writings: A Selection (Hackett, 1987) and Gary S. Rosenkrantz, Haecceity: An Ontological Essay (Kluwer, 1993).

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halting problem

The problem of determining in advance whether a particular program or algorithm will terminate or run forever. The halting problem is the canonical example of a provably unsolvable problem. Obviously any attempt to answer the question by actually executing the algorithm or simulating each step of its execution will only give an answer if the algorithm under consideration does terminate, otherwise the algorithm attempting to answer the question will itself run forever.

Some special cases of the halting problem are partially solvable given sufficient resources. For example, if it is possible to record the complete state of the execution of the algorithm at each step and the current state is ever identical to some previous state then the algorithm is in a loop. This might require an arbitrary amount of storage however. Alternatively, if there are at most N possible different states then the algorithm can run for at most N steps without looping.

A program analysis called termination analysis attempts to answer this question for limited kinds of input algorithm.

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Hamiltonian cycle

Hamiltonian problem

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Hamiltonian path

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Hamiltonian problem

<computability> (Or "Hamilton's problem") A problem in graph theory posed by William Hamilton: given a graph, is there a path through the graph which visits each vertex precisely once (a "Hamiltonian path")? Is there a Hamiltonian path which ends up where it started (a "Hamiltonian cycle" or "Hamiltonian tour")?

Hamilton's problem is NP-complete. It has numerous applications, sometimes completely unexpected, in computing.

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Hamiltonian tour

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Hamilton William

<history of philosophy, biography> scottish philosopher (1788-1856); author of Lectures on Metaphysics and Logic (1860). Hamilton followed Reid in defending common sense against the skepticism of empiricists like Hume Hamilton's thought was subjected, in turn, to sharp criticism by Mill. Recommended Reading: James McCosh, Scottish Philosophy: Biographical, Expository, and Critical (AMS, 1980) and John Stuart Mill, An Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy and of the Principle Philosophical Questions Discussed in His Writings (Classic, 2000).

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Hampshire Stuart

<history of philosophy, biography> english philosopher (1914-) whose careful study of the philosophy of Spinoza in Spinoza (1951) prompted the development of a detailed description of the presuppositions necessary for human behavior in Thought and Action (1959) and Morality and Conflict (1983). Hampshire suggests that the nature of human freedom can best be understood by considering the difference between the declaration of what one intends to do and a prediction of what one is likely to do. Recommended Reading: Stuart Hampshire, Innocence and Experience (Harvard, 1991) and Stuart Hampshire, Public and Private Morality (Cambridge, 1978).

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Happiness

<philosophy, ethics, moral, justice, psychology> general well-being in human life, an important goal for many people and a significant issue for theories in normative ethics. Aristotle disagreed with the identification of happiness with bodily pleasure defended by Aristippus and other hedonists. Most utilitarians accept this identification, but emphasize the importance of considering the greatest happiness of everyone rather than merely one's own. Recommended Reading: L. W. Sumner, Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics (Oxford, 1999); Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty, ed. by Stephen Engstrom and Jennifer Whiting (Cambridge, 1998); and Victoria S. Wike, Kant on Happiness in Ethics (SUNY, 1994).

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Haraway Donna Jeanne

<history of philosophy, biography> american feminist (1944-) philosopher of science who proposes a fundamental re-examination of the concepts of human nature and political identity in light of postmodern rejection of stark dualisms. Her "Manifesto for Cyborgs" (1965) suggests that the extent of our reliance on technology makes it difficult to understand ourselves independently of mechanical devices. Although we are all fabricated hybrids of organism and machine, Haraway supposes that feminist cyborgs have the opportunity to escape the perils of patriarchal capitalist technology. Recommended Reading: Donna J. Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (Routledge, 1991); Donna J. Haraway, Primate Visions: Gender, Race and Nature in the World of Modern Science (Routledge, 1990); and The Cyborg Handbook, ed. by Chris Hables Gray, Heidi J. Figueroa-Sarriera, and Steven Mentor (Routledge, 1996).

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Harding Sandra

<history of philosophy, biography> american philosopher of science (1935-). In Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science (with Merrill Hintikka) (1983), The Science Question in Feminism (1986), and Whose Science? Whose Knowledge?: Thinking from Women's Lives (1991), Harding shows that it may be possible to eliminate such basic concepts of traditional Western epistemology as "objectivity," "universality," and "duality." Doing so would create the possibility of alternative ways of thinking, grounded in fundamentally different standpoints, including a feminist perspective borne of women's experience of reality. Recommended Reading: Sandra Harding, Is Science Multicultural? Postcolonialisms, Feminisms, and Epistemologies (Indiana, 1998).

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Hare Richard Mervyn

<history of philosophy, biography> english philosopher (1919-). In The Language of Morals (1952), Freedom and Reason (1963), and Moral Thinking (1981) Hare defended a noncognitivist ethical theory according to which moral assertions are prescriptive commands whose genuine universalizability makes them applicable to every moral agent. Recommended Reading: R. M. Hare, Essays in Ethical Theory (Oxford, 1993); R. M. Hare, Essays on Political Morality (Oxford, 1998); R. M. Hare, Essays on Religion and Education (Oxford, 1998); and Hare and Critics: Essays on Moral Thinking, ed. by Douglas Seanor (Oxford, 1997).

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Hart Herbert Lionel Adolphus

<history of philosophy, biography> english legal philosopher (1907-1992) who applied the methods of analytic philosophy to the foundations of jurisprudence in The Concept of Law (1961), rejecting the rival claims of modern legal positivism. Hart's Law, Liberty, and Morality (1963) and The Morality of the Criminal Law (1965) offer a classic defence of the view that private sexual conduct ought not to be subjected to public legislation. He is also the author of Punishment and Responsibility (1968) and Essays on Bentham (1982), both of which examine details of the utilitarian moral theory. Recommended Reading: Michael Martin, The Legal Philosophy of H.L.A. Hart: A Critical Appraisal (Temple, 1991) Eric J. Boos, Perspectives in Jurisprudence: An Analysis of H. L. A. Hart's Legal Theory (Peter Lang, 1998) N. MacCormick, H. L. A. Hart (Stanford, 1981) Law, Morality, and Society: Essays in Honour of H. L. A. Hart (Oxford, 1996) Michael D. Bayles, Hart's Legal Philosophy: An Examination (Kluwer, 1992).

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Hartley David

<history of philosophy, biography> english physician and philosopher (1705-1759). Hartley's Observations on Man: his Frame, his Duty, and his Expectations (1749) offered a physiological explanation for the association of ideas in purely mechanistic terms. His classification of various types of pleasure experienced by individual human beings was the basis for the later work of Bentham. Recommended Reading: Richard C. Allen, David Hartley on Human Nature (SUNY, 1999) and Hartley's Theory of the Human Mind: On the Principles of the Association of Ideas (AMS, 1990).

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Hartmann Nicolai

<history of philosophy, biography> german philosopher (1882-1950) whose early writings, including Grundz¸ge eine Methaphysik der Erkenntnis (Metaphysics of Knowledge) (1921) and Ethik (Ethics) (1926) used the philosophy of Kant as the starting point for idealistic accounts of reality and human freedom. In such later works as M–glichkeit und Wirklichkeit (Possibility and Actuality) (1938), Der Aufbau der realen Welt (Construction of the Real World) (1940), and Neue Wege der Ontologie (New Ways of Ontology) (1949), however, Hartmann employed phenomenological methods in defence of a vigorous realism. Recommended Reading: Eva Hauel Cadwallader, Searchlight on Values: Nicolai Hartmann's Twentieth-Century Value Platonism (Univ. Press of America, 1985) and W. H. Werkmeister, Nicolai Hartmann's New Ontology (Florida, 1990).

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Hayek Friedrich August von

<history of philosophy, biography> austrian-British economist (1899-1992). In Economics and Knowledge (1936), The Road to Serfdom (1944), and Individualism and Economic Order (1949), Hayek agreed with Popper, in opposition to Keynes that the limitations of human knowledge subvert rational attempts at social planning, leaving only "free market" forces as the foundations of economic life. Hayek won the Nobel Prize in 1974, and is also the author of The Constitution of Liberty (1960) and the three-part Law, Legislation, and Liberty (1978) - Rules and Order; The Mirage of Social Justice; and The Political Order of a Free People. Recommended Reading: John Gray, Hayek on Liberty (Routledge, 1998); G. R. Steele, The Economics of Friedrich Hayek (Palgrave, 1997); and Hayek: Economist and Social Philosopher, ed. by Stephen F. Frowen (Palgrave, 1997).

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Hebbian

Refers to the most common way for a neural network to learn, namely supervised learning. Using a training sample which should produce known responses, the connection weights are adjusted so as to minimise the differences between the desired and actual outputs for the training sample.

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hedon

<ethics>

this is a term that utilitarians use to designate a unit of pleasure. Its opposite is a dolor, which is a unit of pain or displeasure. The term "hedon" comes from the Greek word for pleasure.

<2001-03-26>

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hedonism

<epicureism, ethics> the view accordin to which the fundamental standard of ethical judgment should be pleasure (see also sensualism). While nowadays hedonism has connotations of total pleasure-seeking and emotionalism, it was not always so. For example, although Epicureanism was one of the original hedonistic theories in ethics, it is quite strict as to what true pleasure really is (being a kind of naturalism), so that it is often described as a variety of "enlightened hedonism". While hedonism is usually a species of individualism, this is not always the case; for instance, the ethical standard of utilitarianism, which is a form of altruism, is "the greatest pleasure for the greatest number" - which could be construed as a kind of universalized hedonism. (References from Epicureanism and sensualism.) Recommended Reading: F. E. Peters, Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon (NYU, 1967); The Essential Epicurus, tr. by Eugene Michael O'Connor (Prometheus, 1993); Lionel Tiger, The Pursuit of Pleasure (Transaction, 2000); Fred Feldman, Utilitarianism, Hedonism, and Desert: Essays in Moral Philosophy (Cambridge, 1997); Rem B. Edwards, Pleasures and Pains: A Theory of Qualitative Hedonism (Cornell, 1987); and Kate Soper, Troubled Pleasures: Writings on Politics, Gender, and Hedonism (Verso, 1991).

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hedonistic

<ethics>

of, or pertaining to, pleasure.

<2001-03-26>

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Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

<history of philosophy, biography> born in Stuttgart (1770-1831) and educated in Tuebingen, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel devoted his life wholly to academic pursuits, teaching at Jena, Nuremberg, Heidelberg, and Berlin. His Wissenschaft der Logik (Science of Logic) (1812-1816) attributes the unfolding of concepts of reality in terms of the pattern of dialectical reasoning (thesis---antithesis---synthesis) that Hegel believed to be the only method of progress in human thought, and Die Encyclopaedie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse (Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences) (1817) describes the application of this dialectic to all areas of human knowledge, including history. Hegel's Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse and Gundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts (Philosophy of Right) (1820) provide an intellectual foundation for modern nationalism. Hegel's absolute idealism is evident even in the early Phaenomenologie des Geistes (Phenomenology of Mind) (1807). There Hegel criticized the traditional epistemological distinction of objective from subjective and offered his own dialectical account of the development of consciousness from individual sensation through social concern with ethics and politics to the pure consciousness of the World-Spirit in art, religion, and philosophy. Recommended Reading: Primary sources: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Gesammelte Werke (Meiner, 1968- ); The Hegel Reader, ed. by Stephen Houlgate (Blackwell, 1998); Hegel's Science of Logic, tr. by A. V. Miller (Humanity, 1998); Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, tr. by A. V. Miller and J. N. Findlay (Oxford, 1979); Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philosophy of History, tr. by J. Sibree (Dover, 1956); Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, tr. by A. Wood and H. Nisbet (Cambridge, 1991). Secondary sources: The Cambridge Companion to Hegel, ed. by Frederick C. Beiser (Cambridge, 1993); Walter Kaufmann, (Notre Dame, 1997); Peter Singer, Hegel (Oxford, 1983); Charles Taylor, Hegel and Modern Society (Cambridge, 1979); Feminist Interpretations of G.W.F. Hegel, ed. by Patricia J. Mills (Penn. State, 1996); Quentin Lauer, Hegel's Idea of Philosophy (Fordham, 1983); Raymond Plant, Hegel (Routledge, 1999); Justus Hartnack, An Introduction to Hegel's Logic (Hackett, 1998); Judith Butler, Subjects of Desire (Columbia, 1999); Jon Stewart, The Phenomenology of Spirit Reader: Critical and Interpretive Essays (SUNY, 1997); William Maker, Philosophy Without Foundations: Rethinking Hegel (SUNY, 1994); Allen W. Wood, Hegel's Ethical Thought (Cambridge, 1990); Joseph McCarney, The Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Hegel on History (Routledge, 2000); Herbert Marcuse, Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory (Humanity, 1999); Additional on-line information about Hegel includes: Paul Redding's thorough article in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Peter Singer's article in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Also see: the Absolute, concrete universals, German philosophy, Hegelianism, philosophy of history, idealism, master and slave, metaphysics, nationalism, the owl of Minerva, political philosophy, progress, philosophy of religion, philosophical romanticism, the State, Vorstellung, and world-soul. The thorough collection of resources at EpistemeLinks.com. The article in the Columbia Encyclopedia at Bartleby.com. A glossary of Hegelian terminology from Carl Mickelesen. Andy Blunden's extensive Hegel by Hypertext site. A section on Hegel from Alfred Weber's history of philosophy. Snippets from Hegel in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Andrew Buchwalter on Hegel's philosophy of law. An outline of the Encyclopedia by W. T. Stace. A summary discussion from G. J. Mattey. An analysis of Hegel's system by Herbert Marcuse. A philosophical biography from Uwe Wiedemann. Antoinette M. Stafford's feminist critique of Hegel. William Turner's article in The Catholic Encyclopedia. The Bloomsbury Guide to Human Thought on Nationalism. A summary treatment from Robert Sarkissian. Bjoern Christensson's brief guide to Hegel on-line. The Macmillan Encyclopedia 2001 on Hegel and Hegelianism.

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Hegelianism

<philosophical school> Hegelianism is the name for the philosophical system of G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) and for the philosophical tradition he started. Hegel did not have strong positions of his own in ethics, since he was more interested in the great movements of history than in the individual - he probably even thought that individuals don't have independent spiritual existence and that they are just part of the collective consciousness. Hegel's absolute idealism is often contrasted with the subjective or transcendental idealism of Kant (1724-1804), on whose innovations - in addition to the absolutism of Spinoza (1632-1677) Hegel based much of his philosophy. In political theory, Hegel advocated what is called "the organic theory of the state", which is one of the most consistent kinds of collectivism to be found in philosophical literature (Plato is often said to have advocated such a theory, as well). Hegel was probably the first philosopher to think of history in terms of a dialectic, which is what gave Marx (1818-1883) the inspiration for his doctrine of dialectical materialism. Hegel, by contrast, was a fervent believer in rationalism and absolute idealism, almost even to the point of spiritualism. (References from dialectical materialism and Marxism.)

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Heidegger Martin

<history of philosophy, biography> after studying with Husserl, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) undertook an academic career in Germany, teaching at both Marburg and Freiburg. He became Rector of the University of Freiburg in 1933, where he continued to teach until 1944. Because of his public support for the Nazi regime, Heidegger was forbidden to teach after the end of World War II. Heidegger's Sein und Zeit (Being and Time) (1927) applied the methods of phenomenology to ontology, in an effort to comprehend the meaning of "Being" both in general and as it appears concretely. This led Heidegger to a conception of human existence as active participation in the world, "being-there" (Ger. Dasein), despite its inherent limitations and the threat of inauthenticity. Heidegger's most familiar themes are evident in The Basic Problems of Phenomenology (1927) and Einfuehrung in die Metaphysik (Introduction to Metaphysics) (1953). "Hegel and the Greeks" is a sample of Heidegger's reflections on the history of philosophy. Recommended Reading: Primary sources: Martin Heidegger Gesamtausgabe (Klostermann, 1975- ); Martin Heidegger, The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, tr. by Albert Hofstadter (Indiana, 1988); Martin Heidegger, Being and Time: A Translation of Sein and Zeit, tr. by Joan Stambaugh (SUNY 1997); Martin Heidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics, tr. by Ralph Manheim (Yale, 1986); Martin Heidegger, The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic, tr. by Michael Heim (Indiana, 1992); Martin Heidegger, On the Way to Language (Harper San Francisco, 1982). Secondary sources: Joan Stambaugh, The Finitude of Being (SUNY, 1992); The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger, ed. by Charles B. Guignon (Cambridge, 1993). Steven Mulhall, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Heidegger and Being and Time (Routledge, 1996); George Pattison, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to the Later Heidegger (Routledge, 2000); Michael Inwood, Heidegger (Oxford, 1997); John D. Caputo, The Mystical Element in Heidegger's Thought (Fordham, 1986); Herman Philipse, Heidegger's Philosophy of Being (Princeton, 1998); Jonathan Ree, Heidegger (Routledge, 1999). Additional on-line information about Heidegger includes: Robert Cavalier's thorough lectures on Being and Time. M. J. Inwood's article in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Also see: abandonment, Angst, authenticity, Dasein, death, "existence precedes essence", existentialism, German philosophy, hermeneutics, metaphysics, nothingness, and phenomenology. The thorough collection of resources at EpistemeLinks.com. An interesting introduction by Christopher Scott Wyatt. Lawrence Hatab's discussion of Heidegger's moral philosophy. The article in the Columbia Encyclopedia at Bartleby.com. A paper on Heidegger's view of technology and communications by George Teschner. A short article in Oxford's Who's Who in the Twentieth Century. Bjoern Christensson's brief guide. An excellent collection of links at Ereignis. A brief entry in The Macmillan Encyclopedia 2001.

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Heisenberg Werner

<history of science, biography, philosophy> german physicist (1901-1976) who expressed the uncertainty principle, according to which the position and momentum of a subatomic particle cannot both be determined precisely at the same time, as a crucial element of modern quantum mechanics, described in his Physik und Philosophie (Physics and Philosophy) (1958). Heisenberg won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1932. Recommended Reading: Werner Heisenberg, Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory (Dover, 1930); Werner Heisenberg, Philosophical Problems of Quantum Physics (Ox Bow, 1979); and David C. Cassidy, Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg (Freeman, 1993).

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Held Virginia Potter

<history of philosophy, biography> american philosopher (1929-); author of Rights and Goods: Justifying Social Action (1984), Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics (1993), and Liberalism and the Ethics of Care (1997). Held maintains that the experience of women in our culture promotes the development of ethical practices appropriate in a private rather than in a public sphere of influence. Recommended Reading: Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics, ed. by Virginia Held (Westview, 1995) and Ethics in International Affairs, ed. by Andrew Valls and Virginia Held (Rowman & Littlefield, 2000).

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Helvaetius Claude-Adrien

<history of philosophy, biography> french philosopher (1715-1771), Encyclopedist, and committed hedonist. Both De l'esprit (Of Mind) (1758) and De l'homme (Of Man) (1773) use empiricist methods to defend a strictly materialist account of human life, according to which ethical egoism is generated y the natural desire to maximize pleasure. Recommended Reading: Claude-Adrien Helvetius, Philosophical Works (Thoemmes, 2000) and David W. Smith, Helvetius: A Study in Persecution (Greenwood, 1982).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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Hempel Carl Gustav

<history of philosophy, biography> german-american philosopher of science (1905-1997). In Fundamentals of Concept Formation in Empirical Science (1952) and Aspects of Scientific Explanation (1965) Hempel pointed out that a paradox arises from the supposition that confirming evidence provides equal support for all logically equivalent hypotheses: Since "All swans are white" is logically equivalent to "All non-white things are non-swans" (by contraposition), it follows that observing a brown dog should increase confidence in our belief that swans are white. Recommended Reading: Carl Gustav Hempel, Selected Philosophical Essays, ed. by Richard C. Jeffrey (Cambridge, 2000); Carl Gustav Hempel, Philosophy of Natural Science (Prentice-Hall, 1966); and The Philosophy of Carl G. Hempel: Studies in Science, Explanation, and Rationality, ed. by James H. Fetzer (Oxford, 2000).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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henotheism

<metaphysics, religion, philosophy of religion> term used to describe a belief in one god that at the same time does not deny the existence of other gods. This idea or practice is obviously opposed by monotheism, which regards henotheism's tolerance of other gods as patently ridiculous. (Reference from polytheism.)

[The Ism Book]

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<2001-03-25>

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Heraclitus

<history of philosophy, biography> greek presocratic philosopher (540-475 BC) who used paradox and riddles to argue that the world is constantly changing in discussions preserved only in fragmetary reports. Although he identified fire as the original stuff (Gk. archÍ) of the universe, Heraclitus supposed that its changeable nature results in the formation of all of the traditional opposites. Recommended Reading: Fragments: The Collected Wisdom of Heraclitus, tr. by Bruce Haxton and James Hillman (Penguin, 2001); Henry W. Johnstone, Jr., Heraclitus (Bryn Mawr, 1989); and Richard G. Geldard, Remembering Heraclitus (Lindisfarne, 2000).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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Herbert of Cherbury Baron

<history of philosophy, biography> english philosopher (1583-1648). His rationalistic defence of theology in De Religione Laici (The Layman's Religion) (1645) and De Religione Gentilium (On the Religion of the Gentiles) (1663) was an early statement of the principles of seventeenth-century deism. Herbert's claim, in De Veritate (On Truth) (1624), that human beings are divinely endowed with "common notions" about god and religion, however, was a primary target of Locke's attack on innate ideas. Recommended Reading: John A. Butler, Lord Herbert of Cherbury 1582-1648: An Intellectual Biography (Edwin Mellen, 1990); Eurgen D. Hill, Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury (Twayne, 1987); and R. D. Bedford, The Defence of Truth: Herbert of Cherbury and the Seventeenth Century (Princeton, 1987).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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heredity

<logic> A property possessed by all the wffs in a set is logically hereditary iff the accepted rules of inference pass it on (transmit it) to all the conclusions derivable from that set by those rules.

[Glossary of First-Order Logic]

<2001-03-16>

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hermeneutics

<philosophy, philosophical inquiry, history of philosophy> formal study of appropriate methods of interpretation (Gk. hermÍneuma), first developed as a formal discipline of study by Schleiermacher. Following the work of Dilthey, Gadamer, and Ricouer, the hermeneutical process is often regarded as involving a complex interaction between the interpreting subject and the interpreted object. The task is complicated by the apparent circularity of understanding particular elements in light of the text as a whole, which can in turn be understood only by reference to them. Recommended Reading: John D. Caputo, Radical Hermeneutics: Repetition, Deconstruction, and the Hermeneutic Project (Indiana, 1987); John D. Caputo, More Radical Hermeneutics: On Not Knowing Who We Are (Indiana, 2000); Jean Grondin and Hans-Georg Gadamer, Introduction to Philosophical Hermeneutics, tr. by Joel Weinsheimer (Yale, 1997); Paul Ricoeur, Hermeneutics and Human Sciences: Essays on Language, Action, and Interpretation, ed. by John B. Thompson (Cambridge, 1981); Hans Georg Gadamer, Philosophical Hermeneutics (California, 1977); and Gianni Vattimo, Beyond Interpretation: The Meaning of Hermeneutics for Philosophy, tr. by David Webb (Stanford, 1997).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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heterogeneous

Composed of unrelated parts, different in kind.

Often used in the context of distributed systems that may be running different operating systems or network protocols (a heterogeneous network).

For examples see: interoperable database, middleware.

Contrast homogeneous.

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heterological paradox

Grelling's paradox

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heteronomy

<ethics> for Kant, heteronomy is the opposite of autonomy. Whereas an autonomous person is one whose will is self-determined, a heteronomous person is one whose will is determined by something outside of the person, such as overwhelming emotions. Etymologically, heteronomy goes back to the Greek words for "other" and "law."

<2001-03-26>

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heuristic

<philosophy of science, logic> an informal method for solving problems in the absence of an algorithm for formal proof. Heuristics typically have only restricted applicability and limited likelihood of success but, as George Polya showed, contribute significantly to our understanding of mathematical truths. Recommended Reading: George Polya, How to Solve It (Princeton, 1971); Gerd Gigerenzer amd Peter M. Todd, Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart (Oxford, 1999); and George Polya, Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning (Princeton, 1990).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

<2001-11-23>

1. <PI> A rule of thumb, simplification or educated guess that reduces or limits the search for solutions in domains that are difficult and poorly understood. Unlike algorithms, heuristics do not guarantee optimal, or even feasible, solutions and are often used with no theoretical guarantee.

[What is a "feasible solution"?]

2. <algorithm> approximation algorithm.

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hex

1. hexadecimal.

2. A 6-pack of anything (compare quad). Neither usage has anything to do with magic or black art, though the pun is appreciated and occasionally used by hackers. True story: As a joke, some hackers once offered some surplus ICs for sale to be worn as protective amulets against hostile magic. The chips were, of course, hex inverters.

3. <character> The hash character, used to introduce hexadecimal constants in some assembly languages.

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hexadecimal

<mathematics> (Or "hex") Base 16. A number representation using the digits 0-9, with their usual meaning, plus the letters A-F (or a-f) to represent hexadecimal digits with values of (decimal) 10 to 15. The right-most digit counts ones, the next counts multiples of 16, then 16^2 = 256, etc.

For example, hexadecimal BEAD is decimal 48813:

	digit    weight        value
	B = 11   16^3 = 4096   11*4096 = 45056
	E = 14   16^2 =  256   14* 256 =  3584
	A = 10   16^1 =   16   10*  16 =   160
	D = 13   16^0 =    1   13*   1 =    13
					 -----
				BEAD   = 48813

There are many conventions for distinguishing hexadecimal numbers from decimal or other bases in programs. In C for example, the prefix "0x" is used, e.g. 0x694A11.

Hexadecimal is more succinct than binary for representing bit-masks, machines addresses, and other low-level constants but it is still reasonably easy to split a hex number into different bit positions, e.g. the top 16 bits of a 32-bit word are the first four hex digits.

The term was coined in the early 1960s to replace earlier "sexadecimal", which was too racy and amusing for stuffy IBM, and later adopted by the rest of the industry.

Actually, neither term is etymologically pure. If we take "binary" to be paradigmatic, the most etymologically correct term for base ten, for example, is "denary", which comes from "deni" (ten at a time, ten each), a Latin "distributive" number; the corresponding term for base sixteen would be something like "sendenary". "Decimal" is from an ordinal number; the corresponding prefix for six would imply something like "sextidecimal". The "sexa-" prefix is Latin but incorrect in this context, and "hexa-" is Greek. The word octal is similarly incorrect; a correct form would be "octaval" (to go with decimal), or "octonary" (to go with binary). If anyone ever implements a base three computer, computer scientists will be faced with the unprecedented dilemma of a choice between two *correct* forms; both "ternary" and "trinary" have a claim to this throne.

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hierarchy

An organisation with few things, or one thing, at the top and with several things below each other thing. An inverted tree structure. Examples in computing include a directory hierarchy where each directory may contain files or other directories; a hierarchical network (see hierarchical routing), a class hierarchy in object-oriented programming.

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higher-order function

(HOF) A function that can take one or more functions as argument and/or return a function as its value. E.g. map in (map f l) which returns the list of results of applying function f to each of the elements of list l. See also curried function.

<2001-03-16>

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higher-order logic

predicate logic

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higher-order predicate logic

predicate logic

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high-level language

(HLL) A programming language which provides some level of abstraction above assembly language. These normally use statements consisting of English-like keywords such as "FOR", "PRINT" or "GOTO", where each statement corresponds to several machine language instructions. It is much easier to program in a high-level language than in assembly language though the efficiency of execution depends on how good the compiler or interpreter is at optimising the program.

Rarely, the variants "VHLL" and "MLL" are found.

See also languages of choice, generation

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Hilbert David

<history of mathematics, history of philosophy, biography> german mathematician (1862-1943) whose influential lecture at Paris, "Mathematical Problems" (1900), outlined the development of classical mathematics as the application of Kant's notion of a regulative principle. Hilbert's Grundlagen der Geometrie (Foundations of Geometry) (1899), "Axiomatisches Denken" ("Axiomatic Thinking") (1917), "Die Grundlagen der Mathematik" ("Foundations of Mathematics") (1926), and Principles of Mathematical Logic (1931) proposed the axiomatic formalization of mathematics in order to demonstrate consistency by syntactical or metamathematical methods. Recommended Reading: Constance Reid, Hilbert (Copernicus, 1996) and Jeremy Gray and David Rowe, The Hilbert Problems: A Perspective on Twentieth Century Mathematics (Oxford, 2000).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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Hilbert's program

<logic> An attempt to avoid both relativity and vicious circularity in the proof of the consistency of formal systems of arithmetic, by using only a small set of extremely intuitive operations to prove the consistency of the system containing that set. (A second phase of the program was to build all of mathematics on the system thus certified to be consistent.) Hopes of accomplishing Hilbert's program were dashed by Goedel's second incompleteness theorem.

See Goedel's theorems, relative consistency proof

[Glossary of First-Order Logic]

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Hippias

<history of philosophy, biography> presocratic philosopher and mathematician (485-415 BC) who emphasized the use of empirical methods in pursuit of knowledge. Although his efforts to trisect the angle geometrically failed, they led Hippias to the discovery of the quadratrix, a curve satisfying the modern algebraic formula y = x tan(py/2a) , whose construction would render trisection of acute angles unproblematic.

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historical determinism

<metaphysics, political philosophy, philosophy of history> the view according to which the movement of history is determined by material or spiritual forces that are not open to human volition or change. Hegel's spiritualized dialectical understanding of history is an example of this doctrine, as is the dialectical materialism that is part of Marxism. (Reference from dialectical materialism.)

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historicism

<history of philosophy, historiography, epistemology> belief that social structures, events, and texts are best to be understood in the context of their historical development. Versions of this view were defended by Dilthey, Lukacs, and Gramsci. More recently, Popper and Hayek criticized the extreme version of this view, according to which the historical outcomes are inevitably determined. In the milder form embraced by Croce, Kuhn, and Gadamer, however, historicism is simply the notion that a purely ahistorical perspective on human affairs would be misleading. Recommended Reading: H. Aram Veeser, The New Historicism Reader (Routledge, 1993); Paul Hamilton, Historicism: The New Critical Idiom (Routledge, 1996); Charles R. Bambach, Heidegger, Dilthey, and the Crisis of Historicism: History and Metaphysics in Heidegger, Dilthey, and the Neo-Kantians (Cornell, 1995); Robert D'Amico, Historicism and Knowledge (Routledge, 1992); and Karl Popper, The Poverty of Historicism (Routledge, 1993).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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Hoagland Sarah Lucia

<history of philosophy, biography> american moral philosopher (1945-). In Lesbian Ethics: Toward New Value (1988) Hoagland attributes a host of individual and social evils to their origin in a patriarchal and heterosexualist culture and proposes a moral revolution based on the formation of lesbian communities purposefully separated from the society at large. Recommended Reading: For Lesbians Only: A Separatist Anthology, ed. by Sarah Lucia Hoagland and Julia Penelope (Onlywomen, 1992).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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Hobbes Thomas

<history of philosophy, biography> decades after completing his traditional education as a classicist at Oxford and serving as tutor of William Cavendish, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) became convinced that the methods employed by mathematicians and scientists-geometry, in particular-hold the greatest promise for advances in human knowledge. Voluntarily exiled to Holland during the years of Parliamentary Rule, the royalist Hobbes devoted much of his time to the development and expression of a comprehensive philosophical vision of the mechanistic operation of nature. Although he returned to England with the restoration of Charles II, Hobbes was for the remainder of his life embroiled in bitter political and religious controversies. They did not prevent the ninety-year-old Hobbes from completing his English translation of the works of Homer. Hobbes's first systematic statement of a political philosophy, Elements of Law, Natural and Politic (1640), relies heavily upon the conception of natural law that had dominated the tradition from Aquinas to Grotius. But his views had begun to change by the time he reissued portions of his work in a Latin version known as De Cive (1642). The Leviathan (1651) is the most complete expression of Hobbes's philosophy. It begins with a clearly materialistic account of human nature and knowledge, a rigidly deterministic account of human volition, and a pessimistic vision of the consequently natural state of human beings in perpetual struggle against each other. It is to escape this grim fate, Hobbes argued, that we form the commonwealth, surrendering our individual powers to the authority of an absolute sovereign. For Hobbes, then, individual obedience to even an arbitrary government is necessary in order to forestall the greater evil of an endless state of war. Recommended Reading: Primary sources: The English works of Thomas Hobbes, ed. by Sir William Molesworth (Oxford, 1962); Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. by J.C.A. Gaskin (Oxford, 1998); Thomas Hobbes, On the Citizen, ed. by Richard Tuck and Michael Silverthorne (Cambridge, 1998); Secondary sources: The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes, ed. by Tom Sorell (Cambridge, 1996); Richard Tuck, Hobbes (Oxford, 1989); Quentin Skinner, Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes (Cambridge, 1997); Samuel I. Mintz, The Hunting of Leviathan: Seventeenth-Century Reactions to the Materialism and Moral Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (St. Augustine, 1997); Aloysius P. Martinich, Thomas Hobbes (St. Martin's, 1997). Additional on-line information about Hobbes includes: Bernard Gert's article in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Also see: conservatism, the social contract, English philosophy, the Leviathan, materialism, "nasty, brutish, and short", the people, the persecution of philosophers, political philosophy, and the state of nature. An article in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The article in the Columbia Encyclopedia at Bartleby.com. The thorough collection of resources at EpistemeLinks.com. Hobbesiana from Nicola Caleffi. G. J. Mattey's summary discussion of Hobbes. A section on Hobbes from Alfred Weber's history of philosophy. Steven Darwall's lectures on Hobbes. A summary treatment by Robert Sarkissian. Snippets from Hobbes in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Rosalba Dur¥n Forero's comparison of Hobbes with Spinoza on gender equality. The Bloomsbury Guide to Human Thought on The State and Sovereignty. A paper by Juhani Pietarinen on Hobbes and the Prisoner's Dilemma. Bj–rn Christensson's brief guide to on-line resources. Discussion of Hobbes's mathematical significance at Mathematical MacTutor. A brief entry in The Macmillan Encyclopedia 2001.

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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Hofstadter Douglas

<history of philosophy, biography> american computer scientist and philosopher (1945-). In Goedel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid (1979), Hofstadter offers an insightful account of major developments in the metamathematics of recursive functions, tracing its importance for artificial intelligence research and human self-understanding through metaphorical comparisons with art and music. Hofstadter is also author of Metamagical Themas (1985) and co-editor (with Dan Dennett) of The Mind's I (1981). Recommended Reading: Douglas R. Hofstadter, Fluid Concepts & Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought (Basic, 1996) and Douglas R. Hofstadter, Le Ton Beau De Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language (Basic, 1998).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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holism

<philosophy of mind, ontology> the view that parts of a system have significance mostly in virtue of their interrelations with other parts.

(The following discussion is from The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Mental (or semantic) holism is the doctrine that the identity of a belief content (or the meaning of a sentence that expresses it) is determined by its place in the web of beliefs or sentences comprising a whole theory or group of theories. It can be contrasted with two other views: atomism and molecularism.

Molecularism characterizes meaning and content in terms of relatively small parts of the web in a way that allows many different theories to share those parts. For example, the meaning of "chase" might be said by a molecularist to be try to catch.

Atomism characterizes meaning and content in terms of none of the web; it says that sentences and beliefs have meaning or content independently of their relations to other sentences or beliefs.

One major motivation for holism has come from reflections on the natures of confirmation and learning. As Quine (1953) observed, claims about the world are confirmed not individually, but only in conjunction with theories of which they are a part. And typically, one cannot come to understand scientific claims without understanding a significant chunk of the theory of which they are a part. For example, in learning the Newtonian concepts of "force", "mass", "kinetic energy" and "momentum", one doesn't learn any definitions of these terms in terms that are understood beforehand, for there are no such definitions. Rather, these theoretical terms were all learned together in conjunction with procedures for solving problems.

The major problem with holism is that it threatens to make generalisation in psychology virtually impossible. If the content of any state depends on all others, it would be extremely unlikely that any two believers would ever share a state with the same content. Moreover, holism would appear to conflict with our ordinary conception of reasoning. What sentences one accepts influence what one infers. If I accept a sentence and then later reject it, I thereby change the inferential role of that sentence, so the meaning of what I accept wouldn't be the same as what I later reject. But then it would be difficult to understand on this view how one could rationally --or even irrationally!-- change one's mind. And agreement and translation are also problematic for much the same reason.

Holists have responded (1) by proposing that we should think not in terms of "same/different" meaning but in terms of a gradient of similarity of meaning, (2) by proposing "two factor" theories or (3) by simply accepting the consequence that there is no real difference between changing meanings and changing beliefs.

References

Ned Block Holism, Mental and Semantic

Ned Block <nb21@is5.nyu.edu>

Chris Eliasmith - [Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind] Homepage

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homogeneous

(Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.

1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network.

Contrast heterogeneous.

2. <mathematics> (Of a polynomial) containing terms of the same degree with respect to all the variables, as in x^2 + 2xy + y^2.

3. <mathematics> (Of a function) containing a set of variables such that when each is multiplied by a constant, this constant can be eliminated without altering the value of the function, as in cos x/y + x/y.

4. <mathematics> (of an equation) containing a homogeneous function made equal to 0.

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homogenous

homogeneous

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homological - heterological

<philosophy of science, logic> distinction between concepts or words. A homological term applies to itself, a heterological term does not. Thus, for example: "short" and "having fewer than ten syllables" are homological terms; "big" and "having more than ten syllables" are heterological terms. Although "homological" is itself a homological term, a self-referential paradox arises when we consider the word "heterological." If we suppose that it applies to itself (thus being homological), then it is not heterological and does not apply to itself. But if we suppose that it does not apply to itself (thus being heterological), then it does apply to itself and is homological. What, then, are we to make of an expression such as, "The smallest integer not namable in fewer than twenty syllables?"

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homomorphism

A map f between groups A and B is a homomorphism of A into B if

	f(a1 * a2) = f(a1) * f(a2)  for all a1,a2 in A.

where the *s are the respective group operations.

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homonymous - synonymous - paronymous

<philosophy, logic, linguistics> Aristotle's distinction among different uses of a term: they are said to be homonymous if the uses are entirely distinct, synonymous if they are the same, and paronymous if they are different but related. Thus, for example: In "Colleen is a cat," and "Garfield is a cat," "cat" is used homonymously. In "Carter was president in 1978," and "Bush was president in 1990," "president" is used synonymously. In "Jean was brave," and "What Jean did was brave," "brave" is used paronymously. Recommended Reading: Aristotle's Categories and De Interpretatione, tr. by J.L. Ackrill (Oxford, 1975).

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Hopfield model

Hopfield network

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Hopfield network

<artificial intelligence> (Or "Hopfield model") A kind of neural network investigated by John Hopfield in the early 1980s. The Hopfield network has no special input or output neurons (see McCulloch-Pitts), but all are both input and output, and all are connected to all others in both directions (with equal weights in the two directions). Input is applied simultaneously to all neurons which then output to each other and the process continues until a stable state is reached, which represents the network output.

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Hopper Grace

<history of philosophy, biography> american mathematician and computer scientist (1906-1992). During her service in the U.S. Navy (where she rose to the rank of Admiral) Hopper pioneered the development of programming languages (including COBOL) for digital computers and introduced use of the term "bug" to denote a software flaw. Recommended Reading: Grace Murray Hopper and Steven L. Mandell, Understanding Computers (Wadsworth, 1990) and Nancy Whitelaw, Grace Hopper: Programming Pioneer.

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Horkheimer Max

<history of philosophy, biography> german philosopher (1895-1973). Co-founder (with Adorno and Marcuse) of the Frankfurt School, Horkheimer proposed unification of abstract philosophy with social science in the practice of critical theory in Dialektik der Aufkl”rung (Dialectic of Enlightenment) (1947). Zur Kritik der instrumentellen Vernunft (Critique of Instrumental Reason) (1967), Eclipse of Reason (1974), and other late writings express Horkheimer's growing pessimism about the possibility of genuine progress. Recommended Reading: Max Horkheimer, Between Philosophy and Social Science: Selected Early Writings, tr. by G. Frederick Hunter, Matthew S. Kramer, and John Torpey (MIT, 1995); Max Horkheimer, Critical Theory, tr. by Mathew J. O'Connell (Continuum, 1975); and Max Horkheimer: A Bibliography, ed. by Joan Nordquist (Ref. & Res. Serv., 1990).

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Horn clause

<logic> A set of atomic literals with at most one positive literal. Usually written

	L <- L1, ..., Ln
or
	<- L1, ..., Ln

where n>=0. If L is false the clause is regarded as a goal. Horn clauses can express a subset of statements of first order logic.

The name "Horn Clause" comes from the logician Alfred Horn, who first pointed out the significance of such clauses in 1951, in the article "On sentences which are true of direct unions of algebras", Journal of Symbolic Logic, 16, 14-21.

A definite clause is a Horn clause that has exactly one positive literal.

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Horney Karen

<history of philosophy, biography> german-american psychoanalyst (1885-1952) who emphasized the role of social conditions in the formation of personality. In New Ways in Psychoanalysis (1939), Horney showed that Freud's notion of "penis envy" is a misrepresentation of female psychology, generated in fact by phallocentric resentment of women. Horney was also the author of Our Inner Conflicts: A Constructive Theory of Neurosis (1945), Self-Analysis (1947), and Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization (1950). Recommended Reading: Karen Horney, The Neurotic Personality of Our Time (Norton, 1994); Karen Horney, Feminine Psychology (Norton, 1993); The Unknown Karen Horney: Essays on Gender, Culture, and Psychoanalysis, tr. Bernard J. Paris (Yale, 2000); and Bernard J. Paris, Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding (Yale, 1994).

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Human-Computer Interaction

<software, hardware> (HCI) The study of how humans interact with computers, and how to design computer systems that are easy, quick and productive for humans to use.

See also Human-Computer Interface.

HCI Sites.

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Human-Computer Interface

<software, hardware> (HCI) Any software or hardware that allows a user to interact with a computer. Examples are WIMP, command line interpreter, or virtual reality.

See also Human-Computer Interaction.

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humanism

<history of philosophy, philosophy, literature> belief that individual human beings are the fundamental source of all value and have the ability to understand - and perhaps even to control - the natural world by careful application of their own rational faculties. During the Renaissance, humanists such as Bruno, Erasmus, Valla, and Pico della Mirandola helped shift attention away from arcane theological disputes toward more productive avenues of classical study and natural science. Recommended Reading: The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism, ed. by Jill Kraye (Cambridge, 1996); Impact of Humanism, ed. by Lucille Kekewich (Yale, 2000); Rebecca W. Bushnell, A Culture of Teaching: Early Modern Humanism in Theory and Practice (Cornell, 1996); and John C. Olin, Erasmus, Utopia, and the Jesuits: Essays on the Outreach of Humanism (Fordham, 1994).

[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]

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<ethics> although the definition of humanism is somewhat fuzzy, humanistic philosophies focus centrally on human concerns (as opposed to the interests of the gods or the technical issues of philosophy - that is, as opposed to theism or logicism). Humanistic philosophies have sprung up in many eras and places, including ancient Greece (Aristotelianism and Epicureanism), China (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism), Renaissance Europe, and in America (some forms of pragmatism, "secular humanism", "humanistic psychology" as advocated by Abraham Maslow, and the thought of people like Thoreau and Emerson). While humanism is often closely tied to secularism and to individualism, these connections are not necessary. In fact, humanism is sometimes thought of as a "religion of humanity" that takes altruism and action for the sake of all humanity as its guiding principle (this is true of the positivism of August Comte, for example). Humanism is often more a state of mind or a certain quality of thought than any definite doctrine, but it is almost universally taken to be a positive quality, except by some 20th century religionists (who seem to hold a special scorn for "secular humanism"). (References from Aristotelianism, behaviorism, Confucianism, dogmatism, eudaimonism, individualism, logicism, Marxism, naturalism, pantheism, positivism, pragmatism, secularism, and Socraticism.)

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Hume David

<history of philosophy, biography> soon after completing his studies at Edinburgh, Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) began writing his comprehensive statement of the views he believed would contribute to philosophy no less than Newton's had to science. But the public reception for the three books of his magisterial Treatise of Human Nature (1739) was less than cordial, and Hume abandoned his hopes of a philosophical career in order to support his family as a librarian, historian, diplomat, and political essayist, a course of action he described in the autobiographical My Own Life (1776). Hume's Essays Moral and Political (1741-1742) found some success, and the multi-volume History of England (1754-1762) finally secured the modest livelihood for which he had hoped. Although he spent most of his life trying to produce more effective statements of his philosophical views, he did not live to see the firm establishment of his reputation by the criticisms of Kant and much later appreciation of the logical positivists. The central themes of Book I of the Treatise receive a somewhat more accessible treatment in An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (1748), a more popular summary of Hume's empiricism. According to Hume, little human knowledge can be derived from the deductively certain relations of ideas. Since the causal interactions of physical objects are known to us only as inherently uncertain matters of fact, Hume argued, our belief that they exhibit any necessary connection (however explicable) can never be rationally justified, but must be acknowledged to rest only upon our acquired habits. In similar fashion, Hume argued that we cannot justify our natural beliefs in the reality of the self or the existence of an external world. From all of this, he concluded that a severe (if mitigated) skepticism is the only defensible view of the world. Hume recast the moral philosophy of the Treatise's Book III in An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals (1751). In both texts Hume clearly maintained that human agency and moral obligation are best considered as functions of human passions rather than as the dictates of reason. In the posthumously published Dialogues concerning Natural Religion (1780), Hume discussed the possibility of arriving at certain knowledge of god through the application of reason and considered defense of a fideistic alternative. Recommended Reading: Primary sources: David Hume, Philosophical Works, ed. by T. H. Green and T. H. Grose (Longmans, Green, 1874-1875); David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. by Ernest C. Mossner (Viking, 1986); David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, ed. by Anthony Flew (0812690540); David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (Free Press, 1966); David Hume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, ed. by Martin Bell (Penguin, 1990). Secondary sources: The Cambridge Companion to Hume, ed. by David Fate Norton (Cambridge, 1993); Feminist Interpretations of David Hume, ed. by Anne Jaap Jacobson (Penn. State, 2000); Jonathan Bennett, Locke, Berkeley, Hume: Central Themes (Oxford, 1971); Anthony Quinton, Hume (Routledge, 1999); Donald W. Livingston, Hume's Philosophy of Common Life (Chicago, 1984); Barry Stroud, Hume (Routledge, 1981); Terence Penelhum, David Hume: An Introduction to His Philosophical System (Purdue, 1992); George Dicker, Hume's Epistemology and Metaphysics: An Introduction (Routledge, 1998); Harold W. Noonan, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Hume on Knowledge (Routledge, 1999); Hume's Moral and Political Philosophy, ed. by Henry David Aiken (Free Press, 1975); James Baillie, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Hume on Morality (Routledge, 2000). Additional on-line information about Hume includes: The Hume Archives from James Fieser. Ty Lightner's excellent David Hume Homepage. Justin Broackes's article in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Also see: backgammon, the bundle theory of the self, causality, the cement of the universe, empiricism, English philosophy, the external world, Hume's fork, induction, 'is' and 'ought', natural or scientific laws, miracles, moral philosophy, moral sense, reason as slave of the passions, skepticism about religion, skepticism, Scottish philosophy, sentiments, suicide, sympathy, taste, utility, and virtues. The thorough collection of resources at EpistemeLinks.com. G. J. Mattey's lectures on Hume. An article in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The article in the Columbia Encyclopedia at Bartleby.com. A section on Hume from Alfred Weber's history of philosophy. William Edward Morris's article in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Snippets from Hume in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Marcia L. Homiak's discussion of Hume's Ethics. A paper on Hume's Construal of the Virtues by James Fieser. Bjoern Christensson's brief guide to on-line resources. A brief entry in The Macmillan Encyclopedia 2001.

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Hume's argument against causation

<ontology, philosophy of science, epistemology> how can one know that (sensory event) A is the cause of some (sensory event) B? Since A and B are distinguishable, we do not think of one being the cause of the other until, through experience, we find constant conjunction between A and B (coupled with "continguity" (closeness) of A and B, and the priority of A to B). This constant conjunction gives rise to a superstition that there is a necessary connection between A and B but this notion is just superstition, in that we might have had a long run of coincidences. Since A and B are separable, and we can conceive them existing apart, there is no purely rational basis for deriving B from A; and appeal to some general principle derived from experience (i.e., the future will be like the past) is not helpful because any such principle suffers from the same problem as "A causes B" -- because this too can be coincidental.

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Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrech

<history of philosophy, biography> german philosopher t (1859-1938). Student of Brentano and teacher of Heidegger, Husserl pursued the development of phenomenology as a pure investigation into the nature and content of consciousness in Logische Untersuchungen (Logical Investigations) (1901-13) vol. 1 and vol. 2. This pursuit requires that we 'bracket' our natural beliefs in order to understand their structural sources. Husserl described his methods in Pure Phenomenology, Its Method and Its Field of Investigation (1917), his inagural lecture at Freiburg. As Husserl made clear in Meditations CartÈsiennes (Cartesian Meditations) (1931), only the transcendental self thus remains as both the agent and the object of phenomenological study. Recommended Reading: The Essential Husserl: Basic Writings in Transcendental Phenomenology, ed. by Donn Welton (Indiana, 1999); Joseph J. Kockelmans, Edmund Husserl's Phenomenology (Purdue, 1994); The Cambridge Companion to Husserl, ed. by Barry Smith and David Woodruff Smith (Cambridge, 1995); Paul S. MacDonald, Descartes and Husserl: The Philosophical Project of Radical Beginnings (SUNY, 1999); and Victor Velarde, On Husserl (Wadsworth, 1999).

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Hutcheson Francis

<history of philosophy, biography> scottish philosopher (1694-1746). In his Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virue (1725), An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections with Illustrations on the Moral Sense (1728), and A System of Moral Philosophy (1755), Hutcheson introduced the notion of a "moral sense" by means of which we not only recognize the rectitude of particular actions but are also motivated to perform them, together with a formulation of the greatest happiness principle. These conceptions, also developed (in different directions) by Butler, Hume, and Bentham, became staples of British moral philosophy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. His later work included a set of Remarks (1750) on Mandeville's Fable of the Bees. Recommended Reading: Francis Hutcheson, Philosophical Writings, ed. by R. S. Downie (Everyman, 1994) and William R. Scott, Francis Hutcheson: His Life, Teaching and Position in the History of Philosophy (Thoemmes, 1998).

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hyle

<history of philosophy> greek term for wood or forest; hence, in the philosophy of Aristotle, the term is used for matter considered more generally. Among the four causes, hylÍ is the material cause that underlies any sort of substantial change. Recommended Reading: F. E. Peters, Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon (NYU, 1967).

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hylomorphic

<history of philosophy, metaphysics> Aristotle's theory that natural objects are irreducible composites of matter (Gk. hyle) and form (Gk. morphÍ). Recommended Reading: Aristotle, The Physics: Books I-IV, tr. by Philip H. Wicksteed and Francis M. Cornford (Harvard, 1986).

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Hypatia

<history of philosophy, biography> egyptian mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher (370-415). Hypatia was a popular teacher and head of the neoplatonic philosophical community at Alexandria until her torture and death at the hands of a clergy-led Christian mob. The Alexandrian intellectual community declined significantly after her death. Recommended Reading: Maria Dzielska, Hypatia of Alexandria (Harvard, 1996) and Charles Kingsley, Hypatia (Dent, 1968).

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hypercube

A cube of more than three dimensions. A single (2^0 = 1) point (or "node") can be considered as a zero dimensional cube, two (2^1) nodes joined by a line (or "edge") are a one dimensional cube, four (2^2) nodes arranged in a square are a two dimensional cube and eight (2^3) nodes are an ordinary three dimensional cube. Continuing this geometric progression, the first hypercube has 2^4 = 16 nodes and is a four dimensional shape (a "four-cube") and an N dimensional cube has 2^N nodes (an "N-cube"). To make an N+1 dimensional cube, take two N dimensional cubes and join each node on one cube to the corresponding node on the other. A four-cube can be visualised as a three-cube with a smaller three-cube centred inside it with edges radiating diagonally out (in the fourth dimension) from each node on the inner cube to the corresponding node on the outer cube.

Each node in an N dimensional cube is directly connected to N other nodes. We can identify each node by a set of N Cartesian coordinates where each coordinate is either zero or one. Two node will be directly connected if they differ in only one coordinate.

The simple, regular geometrical structure and the close relationship between the coordinate system and binary numbers make the hypercube an appropriate topology for a parallel computer interconnection network. The fact that the number of directly connected, "nearest neighbour", nodes increases with the total size of the network is also highly desirable for a parallel computer.

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hypertext

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hypertext

<hypertext> A term coined by Ted Nelson around 1965 for a collection of documents (or "nodes") containing cross-references or "links" which, with the aid of an interactive browser program, allow the reader to move easily from one document to another.

The extension of hypertext to include other media - sound, graphics, and video - has been termed "hypermedia", but is usually just called "hypertext", especially since the advent of the World-Wide Web and HTML.

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hypostasization

<philosophy, philosophical inquiry, metaphysics> the variety of reification that results from supposing that whatever can be named or conceived abstractly must actually exist. When (in Through the Looking Glass) his Messenger declares "I'm sure nobody walks much faster than I do," the White King hypostasizes "Nobody" by responding that "He can't do that, or else he'd have been here first." Such philosophers as Plato, Hegel, and Heidegger are sometimes accused of similar flights of ontological whimsy.

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hypothesis

<epistemology, philosophy of science, hypothesis, ockhamism> <empiricism, neo-empiricism, hypotetical deductive method> in science, a testable assertion -- especially a generalization or lawlike assertion, e.g., Newton's law of universal gravitation which states (in part) "All bodies attract each other with a force inversely proportional to their distance." Hypotheses that survive testing come to be confirmed, whereupon they are provisionally accepted as scientific laws.

[Philosophical Glossary]

<2001-06-22>

<philosophy of science, epistemology, logic> a general principle, tentatively put forward for the purposes of scientific explanation and subject to disconfirmation by empirical evidence. For a more detailed discussion, see Logic. Recommended Reading: Karl R. Popper, Logic of Scientific Discovery (Routledge, 1992); Henri Poincare, Science and Hypothesis (Dover, 1952); Errol E. Harris, Hypothesis and Perception: The Roots of Scientific Method (Prometheus, 1996); Larry Laudan, Science and Hypothesis: Historical Essays on Scientific Methodology (Reidel, 1982); David Weissman, Hypothesis and the Spiral of Reflection (SUNY, 1989); and Peter Achinstein and Owen Hannaway, Observation, Experiment, and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science (MIT, 1985).

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hypothetical deductive method

<epistemology, philosophy of science, hypothesis, ockhamism> <empiricism, neo-empiricism> Heisenberg's uncertainty relations> <hypotetical deductive method> the scientific method of testing would-be laws (hypotheses) by making {predictions of particular observable events, then observing whether the events turn out as predicted. If so, the hypothesis is confirmed. If not, the hypothesis is disconfirmed, or (some would say) refuted.

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hypothetical imperative

<kantian ethics, categorical imperative, metaphysics> a command that applies, not unconditionally, but only under certain conditions, or given certain purposes. e.g., "If you want to see a good movie rent The Big Lebowski": the command, here, to rent The Big Lebowski applies only on the condition that you want to see a good movie. Similarly, the command to change your oil frequently applies only if you want your car to last; the command to look both ways before crossing only applies if you seek a safe crossing; etc. According to Kant, nonmoral commandments are all of this hypothetical sort. Compare: categorical imperative.

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hypothetical syllogism - HS

<philosophy of science, logic> a rule of inference of the form:

	p -> q
	q -> r
	_______
	p -> r

Example: "If Debbie is promoted, then Gene will be, too. But if Gene is promoted, then Kim will be angry. Therefore, if Debbie is promoted, then Kim will be angry." A truth-table shows the validity of this inference.

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