Zen ==>


<religion, philosophy> individualistic religious and philosophical tradition that originated with the historical Buddha (c. 563-483 BC) in India and spread throughout the Orient. In this century, it has also spread to America, in the form of Zen Buddhism. Zen is the Japanese name for the form of Buddhism that was most successful in China, Ch'an, which represented a syncretism of Indian Mahayana Buddhism and traditional Chinese beliefs like Confucianism and Taoism. Buddhism, in fact, is quite similar to Taoism: both stress the belief that we cannot trust in the world of appearances and that there is an underlying unity to the universe (see holism); both emphasize a certain level of detachment from worldly affairs (sometimes bordering on asceticism) and the development of a disposition that enables one to enjoy and understand the world. Buddhism transcendentalism puts a great value on ultimate detachment and eternal enlightenment, known as Nirvana. (References from holism, humanism, individualism, Neo-Confucianism, and Taoism.)

Based on [The Ism Book]

Edited by Giovanni Benzi


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