Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

<history of philosophy, biography> born in Stuttgart (1770-1831) and educated in Tuebingen, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel devoted his life wholly to academic pursuits, teaching at Jena, Nuremberg, Heidelberg, and Berlin. His Wissenschaft der Logik (Science of Logic) (1812-1816) attributes the unfolding of concepts of reality in terms of the pattern of dialectical reasoning (thesis---antithesis---synthesis) that Hegel believed to be the only method of progress in human thought, and Die Encyclopaedie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse (Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences) (1817) describes the application of this dialectic to all areas of human knowledge, including history. Hegel's Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse and Gundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts (Philosophy of Right) (1820) provide an intellectual foundation for modern nationalism. Hegel's absolute idealism is evident even in the early Phaenomenologie des Geistes (Phenomenology of Mind) (1807). There Hegel criticized the traditional epistemological distinction of objective from subjective and offered his own dialectical account of the development of consciousness from individual sensation through social concern with ethics and politics to the pure consciousness of the World-Spirit in art, religion, and philosophy. Recommended Reading: Primary sources: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Gesammelte Werke (Meiner, 1968- ); The Hegel Reader, ed. by Stephen Houlgate (Blackwell, 1998); Hegel's Science of Logic, tr. by A. V. Miller (Humanity, 1998); Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, tr. by A. V. Miller and J. N. Findlay (Oxford, 1979); Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philosophy of History, tr. by J. Sibree (Dover, 1956); Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, tr. by A. Wood and H. Nisbet (Cambridge, 1991). Secondary sources: The Cambridge Companion to Hegel, ed. by Frederick C. Beiser (Cambridge, 1993); Walter Kaufmann, (Notre Dame, 1997); Peter Singer, Hegel (Oxford, 1983); Charles Taylor, Hegel and Modern Society (Cambridge, 1979); Feminist Interpretations of G.W.F. Hegel, ed. by Patricia J. Mills (Penn. State, 1996); Quentin Lauer, Hegel's Idea of Philosophy (Fordham, 1983); Raymond Plant, Hegel (Routledge, 1999); Justus Hartnack, An Introduction to Hegel's Logic (Hackett, 1998); Judith Butler, Subjects of Desire (Columbia, 1999); Jon Stewart, The Phenomenology of Spirit Reader: Critical and Interpretive Essays (SUNY, 1997); William Maker, Philosophy Without Foundations: Rethinking Hegel (SUNY, 1994); Allen W. Wood, Hegel's Ethical Thought (Cambridge, 1990); Joseph McCarney, The Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Hegel on History (Routledge, 2000); Herbert Marcuse, Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory (Humanity, 1999); Additional on-line information about Hegel includes: Paul Redding's thorough article in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Peter Singer's article in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Also see: the Absolute, concrete universals, German philosophy, Hegelianism, philosophy of history, idealism, master and slave, metaphysics, nationalism, the owl of Minerva, political philosophy, progress, philosophy of religion, philosophical romanticism, the State, Vorstellung, and world-soul. The thorough collection of resources at EpistemeLinks.com. The article in the Columbia Encyclopedia at Bartleby.com. A glossary of Hegelian terminology from Carl Mickelesen. Andy Blunden's extensive Hegel by Hypertext site. A section on Hegel from Alfred Weber's history of philosophy. Snippets from Hegel in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Andrew Buchwalter on Hegel's philosophy of law. An outline of the Encyclopedia by W. T. Stace. A summary discussion from G. J. Mattey. An analysis of Hegel's system by Herbert Marcuse. A philosophical biography from Uwe Wiedemann. Antoinette M. Stafford's feminist critique of Hegel. William Turner's article in The Catholic Encyclopedia. The Bloomsbury Guide to Human Thought on Nationalism. A summary treatment from Robert Sarkissian. Bjoern Christensson's brief guide to Hegel on-line. The Macmillan Encyclopedia 2001 on Hegel and Hegelianism.

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<philosophical school> Hegelianism is the name for the philosophical system of G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) and for the philosophical tradition he started. Hegel did not have strong positions of his own in ethics, since he was more interested in the great movements of history than in the individual - he probably even thought that individuals don't have independent spiritual existence and that they are just part of the collective consciousness. Hegel's absolute idealism is often contrasted with the subjective or transcendental idealism of Kant (1724-1804), on whose innovations - in addition to the absolutism of Spinoza (1632-1677) Hegel based much of his philosophy. In political theory, Hegel advocated what is called "the organic theory of the state", which is one of the most consistent kinds of collectivism to be found in philosophical literature (Plato is often said to have advocated such a theory, as well). Hegel was probably the first philosopher to think of history in terms of a dialectic, which is what gave Marx (1818-1883) the inspiration for his doctrine of dialectical materialism. Hegel, by contrast, was a fervent believer in rationalism and absolute idealism, almost even to the point of spiritualism. (References from dialectical materialism and Marxism.)

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