<semantics, philosophy of language, metaphysics, ethics>, <epistemology, logic> German mathematician and philosopher (1848-1925) who tried to develop effective ways of representing human thought in language and symbols. Frege was an early exponent of the view that arithmetical truth could be established on purely logical grounds. To that end, he developed a formal symbolic language for the expression of truth in Begriffsschrift (Concept-notation) (1879), which introduced quantifiers as logical operators, and employed this symbolic method in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (The Foundations of Arithmetic) (1884) and both volumes of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik (The Basic Laws of Arithmetic) (1893, 1903). In "–ber Sinn und Bedeutung" ("On Sense and Reference") (1892), Frege proposed a strict distinction between the sense and the reference of terms as a way of avoiding difficult epistemological paradoxes about informative statements of identity. Recommended Reading: The Frege Reader, ed. by Michael Beaney (Blackwell, 1997); Joan Weiner, Frege (Oxford, 1999); Michael Dummett, The Interpretation of Frege's Philosophy (Harvard, 1981); Michael Dummett, Frege and Other Philosophers (Oxford, 1996); Anthony Kenny, Frege: An Introduction to the Founder of Modern Analytic Philosophy (Blackwell, 2000); Hans D. Sluga, Gottlob Frege (Routledge, 1999); and Wolfgang Carl, Frege's Theory of Sense and Reference: Its Origins and Scope (Cambridge, 1994).
[A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names]
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